A Worm Reader

A Worm Reader (hard copy) was compiled by Andrew Chisholm for the Chisholm and Jin Labs at University California of Santa Cruz July 2000. This online copy contains the original articles included by Andrew Chisholm with some additional articles.

Ian Chin-Sang (Last update July 2013)

A worm reader:

Classic papers in C. elegans biology

I. Genetics

For discussion:

The genetics of Caenorhabditis elegans.Genetics. 1974 May;77(1):71-94.

 Nobel Prize 2002

Egg-laying defective mutants of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans.Genetics. 1983 Aug;104(4):619-47. 

Background and further reading:

A uniform genetic nomenclature for the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans.Mol Gen Genet. 1979 Sep;175(2):129-33. 

Crossover suppressors and balanced recessive lethals in Caenorhabditis elegans.Genetics. 1978 Jan;88(1):49-65.

Nondisjunction mutants of the nematode C. elegans. Genetics 91:67-94.

The genetic analysis of a reciprocal translocation, eT1(III; V), in Caenorhabditis elegans.Genetics. 1981 Nov-Dec;99(3-4):415-28.


Analysis of genetic mosaics of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans.Genetics. 1984 Sep;108(1):165-80. 

The multivulva phenotype of certain Caenorhabditis elegans mutants results from defects in two functionally redundant pathways.Genetics. 1989 Sep;123(1):109-21.

A new kind of informational suppression in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans.Genetics. 1989 Oct;123(2):301-13.



II. Cell Lineage

    For Discussion:

Post-embryonic cell lineages of the nematode, Caenorhabditis elegans.Dev Biol. 1977 Mar;56(1):110-56.

 Nobel Prize 2002  [Picture of Ian's copy signed by Sir John E. Sulston]. See Andrew Chisholm's review on Cell linages.   

   Background Reading:

Post-embryonic development in the ventral cord of Caenorhabditis elegans.Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci. 1976 Aug 10;275(938):287-97.

The postembryonic cell lineages of the hermaphrodite and male gonads in Caenorhabditis elegans.Dev Biol. 1979 Jun;70(2):396-417. 

The Caenorhabditis elegans male: postembryonic development of nongonadal structures.Dev Biol. 1980 Aug;78(2):542-76.

The embryonic cell lineage of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans.Dev Biol. 1983 Nov;100(1):64-119. 
 Nobel Prize 2002 [Ian's signed copy]


III. Anatomy

For discussion:

The structure of the ventral nerve cord of Caenorhabditis elegans.Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci. 1976 Aug 10;275(938):327-48.

Neurone differentiation in cell lineage mutants of Caenorhabditis elegans.Nature. 1982 Jun 17;297(5867):584-7. 

 Background and further reading

Regulation and cell autonomy during postembryonic development of Caenorhabditis elegans.Dev Biol. 1980 Aug;78(2):577-97.

On the control of germ cell development in Caenorhabditis elegans.Dev Biol. 1981 Jan 30;81(2):208-19.

On the nature of undead cells in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. Philos. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. B Biol. Sci 331, 263-271.

IV. Sex determination

    For discussion

More sex-determination mutants of Caenorhabditis elegans.Genetics. 1980 Nov;96(3):649-64. 

sdc-1: a link between sex determination and dosage compensation in C. elegans.Cell. 1987 Jan 16;48(1):25-37. 

    Background and further reading

Mutations causing transformation of sexual phenotype in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans.Genetics. 1977 Jun;86(2 Pt. 1):275-87.

Polyploids and sex determination in Caenorhabditis elegans.Genetics. 1979 Oct;93(2):393-402. 

Gain-of-function mutations of fem-3, a sex-determination gene in Caenorhabditis elegans.Genetics. 1987 Jan;115(1):107-19. 

More is not better: brood size and population growth in a self-fertilizing nematode.Proc Biol Sci. 1991 Oct 22;246(1315):19-24. 

V. Life Cycle

    For discussion

Interacting genes in nematode dauer larva formation.Nature. 1981 Apr 23;290(5808):668-71.

Evidence for parallel processing of sensory information controlling dauer formation in Caenorhabditis elegans.Genetics. 1993 Aug;134(4):1105-17.

Background and further reading

Heterochronic mutants of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans.Science. 1984 Oct 26;226(4673):409-16. 

A hierarchy of regulatory genes controls a larva-to-adult developmental switch in C. elegans.Cell. 1989 Apr 7;57(1):49-57. 


VI. Behaviour

    For discussion

The neural circuit for touch sensitivity in Caenorhabditis elegans.J Neurosci. 1985 Apr;5(4):956-64. 

Control of larval development by chemosensory neurons in Caenorhabditis elegans.Science. 1991 Mar 8;251(4998):1243-6.


Background and further reading

Normal and mutant thermotaxis in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans.Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1975 Oct;72(10):4061-5. 

Developmental genetics of the mechanosensory neurons of Caenorhabditis elegans.Dev Biol. 1981 Mar;82(2):358-70.

Chemosensory neurons with overlapping functions direct chemotaxis to multiple chemicals in C. elegans.Neuron. 1991 Nov;7(5):729-42.

Mutants with altered muscle structure of Caenorhabditis elegans.Dev Biol. 1980 Jun 15;77(2):271-302.


Three new classes of mutations in the Caenorhabditis elegans muscle gene sup-9.Genetics. 1993 Sep;135(1):53-70. 

VII. Molecular Biology

    For discussion

The DNA of Caenorhabditis elegans.Genetics. 1974 May;77(1):95-104.

Molecular analysis of the unc-54 myosin heavy-chain gene of Caenorhabditis elegans.Nature. 1981 Jun 4;291(5814):386-90. 

Evidence for a transposon in Caenorhabditis elegans.Cell. 1983 Jan;32(1):55-65.

Transposition of Tc1 in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans.Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1985 Mar;82(6):1756-60.

Toward a physical map of the genome of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans.Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1986 Oct;83(20):7821-7825.

Genome linking with yeast artificial chromosomes.Nature. 1988 Sep 8;335(6186):184-6.




VIII. Other Classic Papers

Potent and specific genetic interference by double-stranded RNA in Caenorhabditis elegans.

Nature. 1998 Feb 19;391(6669):806-11.

  Nobel Prize 2006

 let-60, a gene that specifies cell fates during C. elegans vulval induction, encodes a ras protein.Cell. 1990 Nov 30;63(5):921-31.

See also: Genetics of RAS signaling in C. elegans.Trends Genet. 1998 Nov;14(11):466-72. Review.

Caenorhabditis elegans gene ced-9 protects cells from programmed cell death.Nature. 1992 Apr 9;356(6369):494-9.  Nobel Prize 2002

The Mind of a Worm

Phil. Trans. Royal Soc. London. Series B, Biol Scien. Vol.314, Issue 1165 (Nov 12, 1986), 1-340


Green Fluorescent Protein as  a Marker for Gene Expression, Science Vol. 263 1994
 Nobel Prize 2008


The use of genetic screens to identify new genes in the same pathway or parallel pathways.

How we can use genetic analysis to put genes in a ordered genetic pathway.